History of Agriculture or Farming in India – Complete Guide

Agriculture plays a critical role in India’s economy. The Indian farming system started as early as 9000 BC. The domestication of crops and animals are listed in the subcontinent by 9000 BC. The agricultural sector provides significantly to the richness and stability of the country’s earnings, due to which it has been concluded that agricultural success is fundamental to national success. However, the thought of agriculture has been changed during the past fifty years. It is just because of the changes in the technique of the agriculture system.

The history of agriculture is of intense interest because it gives us human cultural processes, centres of early economic and intelligent advance, and the diffusion of influences measured by the spread of valuable plants. The research object is to know the past life of humanity, to see the condition of farmer and farming of the present life of the times.

Introduction of Farming

Farming plays a critical role in India’s economy. The Indian farming system started as early as 9000 BC. Throughout this period, methods were developed for the established mode of production in farming and wheat, grain, and jujube were the traditional crops in the subcontinent by 9000 BC. As a result, the farm sector contributes significantly to the richness and stability of the country’s market, due to which it has been concluded that farm prosperity is crucial to the national capital.

It accounts for approximately 18% of India’s gross national product, provides job to 58 per cent of her working community, and the rural families depend on agriculture as their primary means of livelihood. In addition, farming and fisheries, and forestry are among the essential patrons to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Agriculture System in Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley civilisation relied on the crucial technological successes of the pre-Harappan society, including the plough. The farmers of the Indus Valley grew peas, sesame and dates. Rice was also produced in the Indus Valley Civilization. The method of farming that Indus civilisation people practised was moisture harvesting. Due to discovery, it grew to the light that Indus civilisation personages had a series of many reservoirs to satisfy the city’s needs through the dry season.

Agriculture in the Vedic Period

Farming of a broad range of cereals, fruits and vegetables was general, and animal husbandry was essential for their living. There was the belief that those farmers near nature must be exceptionally near to God. The value of seeds was impressive, and the order of cropping was specific. The practice of the formation of fertiliser by the cow dung for irrigation was widespread during this time.

The commercialisation of farming between 1850-1947

Another remarkable change in Indian farming was its commercialisation that flowed between 1850 and1947. It implies the outcomes of crops for sale preferably than for family consumption. At every stage of the nation’s economic history, a part of the agricultural output is offered for the market. Then, what superior commercial farming from average sales of commercial surplus? It was a calculated policy that worked up below pressure from British commerce. By the middle of the nineteenth age, the commercial revolution had been developed in England.

Farming System in Modern India

India’s farming growth in the 20th century has been weak compared to that in different developing nations. However, there have been many critical developments in the farming sector at this time. On the verge of freedom, India had to face the severe problem of food deficiency. The partition had delivered a decisive blow to food grain production. As a result, food grains had to be carried from outside as farming production did not serve the minimum necessities of the people.

Therefore, farming development was given the topmost preference for self-sufficiency in food grains to feed the population. As was aptly declared by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru after Freedom, “everything else can pause but not farming”, and this perspective reflected in various public policies and financing decisions, individually irrigation, fertilisers, land reforms, production and community growth.

The Green Revolution in India resulted from the orderly application of advanced agricultural technology for yield production. Introduction of composite and comprehensive yielding qualities of seeds made about the actual technological invention in the farming arena. This addition came at a crucial juncture when India bubbled under the continuous droughts of 1965-66 and 1966-67. 

In the modern farming system, the farmers use various types of farm machines with highly advanced technology such as Kubota Tractor and more, which results in very high crop production. Tractors are one of the most helpful machines in farming. Many companies manufactured tractors, but if we go with farmers’ perspective, they believe in Mahindra Tractor for their operations. 


India as a whole, like many of the developing reasons, is rich in natural genetic resources. The author noted that the farming system developed by adapting modern technology, but enough recognition of the rights of the agriculture community is requiring. Most rural communities are denied their claims to land or farm, water, labour, and path to markets, learning, information, and the latest technologies. Common plant varieties and wild varieties are dying due to the flaw of monoculture cultivation and new technologies like biotechnology. The method has resulted in the removal of farming experience. 

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