The importance of mechanical press design

Mechanical presses are a type of machine tool that allows different industrial manufacturing processes to be carried out (shearing, punching, drawing, folding, forming…), by applying a large amount of energy to a certain area in a controlled and exact way. Taking into account the purpose for which a press is going to be used, a good design plays a very important role in order to obtain the best performance and maximum quality of the manufactured parts.

A proper press design is the guarantee of your profitability

When we ask ourselves if a press is expensive or cheap, we have to take into account two factors: cost and performance. Through the analysis of these two variants, we can obtain their profitability.

Once this consideration has been made, we must say that the design of the press is the key factor that determines its price and performance. This design process does not only consist of devising the mechanical principles and creating a machine capable of obtaining the desired parts, it includes a rigorous study of the materials used in the construction of the press to guarantee its reliability, duration, speed and greater simplicity in its operation. maintenance.

Knowing the number of daily pieces that are intended to be manufactured, the materials to work and the deformation processes is very important to adapt the design of the press to the needs of the client without adding additional costs for benefits or capacities that are not needed. In this sense, the design of manual presses would be chosen when their objective is the manufacture of a not very high quantity of pieces and by transfer presses or progressive dies if it is to produce large volumes. Especially robust presses would be chosen for materials with a high elastic limit or asymmetrical presses for processes with off-center loads.

Implementing cutting-edge technology allows increasing productivity

Opting for robotic solutions, automations or opting for servo-presses allows to increase the productivity of the machinery and reduce human capital with its corresponding repercussion in the reduction of costs. Sometimes special presses must be designed for certain fabrications.

In the design it is also necessary to take into account the provisions of safety and prevention of occupational risks. The safe handling of the machinery must be the priority premise of the designer. Meeting UNE, EN, ANSI requirements and standards and respecting existing legal provisions is another point to take into account.

•  Standardization: Like the Technical Drawing, for the design of machines or their parts, it is not only necessary to have knowledge of the Technical Standards, but also to have mastery over them.

When making a design, it should be noted that this work has to be understood by any draftsman or builder in the easiest and most accurate way.

It is good to note that in compliance with the standards, there are machine accessories, which do not require their manufacture, but rather their specification because it is much easier to acquire them in the market and safely at a much lower cost. .

•  Calculation: Whoever designs a component must have basic technical knowledge of applied physics, for modeling in the Statics part and the simulation of stresses in the Dynamic part.

In the static analysis, the forces or dead loads that act, as a result of the components and the work to be carried out, are established, while the dynamic analysis will allow evaluating the resulting reactions when the equipment is in operation.

Generally, these two criteria at the moment of being conceived are analyzed in isolation or independently. However, at the time of assembly or when it is in operation, they may interact in various ways, such as: static moments in times of rest or stop of the machine; the dynamic moments at the time of activation or of simple inertia; It is there where planned re- actions will be presented when generating movements or impacts previously studied.

Likewise, unforeseen states of stops or movements may be generated due to aspects of failure of the part itself or of neighboring parts of the system, which must also withstand external forces or impacts due to the effect of failures of other components.

•  Materials Engineering: It refers to the study of “Materials Science” due to its behavior in work situations of friction, resistance to temperature, stresses, corrosion and its nature. Nowadays it is called that way, since it is vitally important to know the qualities and qualities offered by the different types of materials that exist in nature, since according to their composition or compositions, the different types of suitable materials can be selected.

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