What is Artificial Intelligence? How does it work?

Artificial intelligence in today’s industries has the capabilities of more than just being a business tool. It opens a whole new world of technology and opportunities to businesses . Right from automating the business to engaging customers and employees, and having gained data insights through data analysis, AI has attractive technology for every business. Today every household uses AI, Alexa and Siri as basic technologies, self driven cars and movie recommendations on an OTT are good examples of AI.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence in simple words is a technology that mimics human behaviour in machines and basically computers. Machines are made to learn from experiences and through algorithms. Reasoning, analytical thinking, plan making, natural language processing without human interaction is happening in AI.  Computer science, philosophy, psychology to linguistics, everything is going on in AI. Response and movement is also applied in AI in recent years. In short, a machine is stimulated using technology to bring out human-like intelligence.

Exploring AI, historically has four different approaches:

  • Thinking humanly;
  • Thinking rationally;
  • Acting humanly and
  • Acting rationally.

The first two approaches are processing and reasoning concepts while the second two are behavioural based concepts.

Four types of Artificial Intelligence

Reactive Machines

Reactive machines, as the name suggests, are only capable of perceiving and reacting to the problems. It has no memory back up facility. Hence learning through experience and real time problem solving is not possible. Reactive machines are completely designed to do limited repeated work. Deep Blue machine designed by IBM is a supercomputer designed to play chess and is found to defeat top international players. The system considers every single move as its own scenario and takes the best decisions based on the rules and algorithms fed. They are capable of judging the opponent’s next move. Google’s AlphaGo is also an example of reactive machines. Owing to its scope and reliability, reactive machines can be used to do repeated work.

Limited memory

In limited memory, the system can store data and make predictions based on previous experiences. A set of input data is provided and scientists train them through continuous learning and then better decisions are made. Limited memory is classified under the following types:

  • Reinforcement learning: here, machines make better decisions through the trial-and-error method.
  • Long Short Term Memory(LSTM): LSTM uses recent information to make a sequence of predictions and conclusions.
  • Evolutionary Generative Adversarial Networks (E-GAN): In E-GAN, the machine continuously evolves through mutations and pursues to make better decisions every time.

Theory of Mind

Theory of mind can create a two-way relationship between people and computers. It is based on the mind and understanding that every living thing has thoughts and emotions that are affected by one’s behaviour. Emotional fluctuations, psychological concepts in the real time helps in creating the relationship using Artificial Intelligence.


The last level in Artificial Intelligence is self-awareness. Its existence in the world is through  consciousness and understanding of human feelings expressed and how they communicate. It is built based on one’s presence and emotional connection. On the whole, artificial Intelligence is considered more as a supporting tool rather than just the replacements of human intelligence. With the growing technology, AI will certainly play a big part in every possible business.