What Is Hard And Soft Sciences, Examples Of Hard Sciences:

Science is a system of knowledge that has been obtained through observations and experiments. This system has a structure that relates to the different areas of science to each other, in specific ways. In it, there are general laws that have been developed in a rational and experimental way.

The scientific knowledge can generate questions and develop arguments to answer those questions tentatively. 

The possible answers to these questions (formulated from logical reasoning) are called hypotheses. The sciences have a specific method of problem-solving and knowledge construction that is called the scientific method and you can learn more with the help of hard science trivia questions and answers.

The distinction between hard and soft science is not a formal division but is used to point out:

Hard Sciences:

The hard sciences are those that use the scientific method with more rigorous and accurate results and verification possibilities.

  • They are capable of producing predictions.
  • Experimental: Its object of study facilitates the carrying out of experiments.
  • Empirical: in general (but not in all cases) the hard sciences are not theoretical but empirical, that is, it is based on the observation of phenomena. Although there is a widespread belief that only the so-called hard sciences are empirical, we will see that so are the soft sciences.
  • Quantifiable: the experimental results are not only qualitative but also quantitative.
  • Objectivity: due to the characteristics already mentioned, hard sciences are usually considered as more objective than soft sciences.

Soft Sciences:

The soft sciences can use the scientific method but in some cases, they reach theoretical conclusions only through reasoning, without experimentation is possible.

  • Their predictions are not so exact and in some cases, they cannot produce them.
  • While they may include experimentation, they can reach theoretical conclusions without conducting experiments.
  • They are considered less empirical because they can study phenomena that cannot be reproduced under laboratory conditions. However, they also observe concrete facts (that is, they are actually empirical).
  • Not quantifiable: the results cannot be measured or are not as valuable for their quantitative aspects as for their qualitative aspects
  • Subjectivity: the soft sciences reflect on the intervention of the observer in the observed phenomenon and do not deny the subjectivity of the researcher. So they are believed to be more subjective than the hard sciences.

Hard science examples:


Formal science, that is, it validates its theory based on propositions, definitions, and reference rules. Study the properties and relationships between certain abstract entities (numbers, geometric figures or symbols) following logical reasoning. It is used by all the other hard sciences.


Study the objects and phenomena originated outside the terrestrial atmosphere, that is, stars, planets, comets and more complex structures such as galaxies and the universe itself. He uses physics and chemistry to be able to interpret his observations of remote events and objects.


Study the behavior of matter, energy, time and space, and the changes and interactions between these elements. 

The physical quantities are energy (and its various forms), momentum, mass, electric charge, entropy. Physical entities can be matter, particle, field, wave, space-time, observer, position.


Study matter both in its composition, its structure, and its properties and in the changes it undergoes. Chemistry considers one substance to become another when chemical bonds between atoms change. 

The atom is the basic (though not indivisible) unit of chemistry. It is made up of a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons around which a group of electrons rotates in specific orbits. 

Chemistry is divided into organic chemistry (when you study the chemistry of living things) and inorganic chemistry (when you study the chemistry of inert matter).


Study living beings in all their characteristics, from their nutrition, reproduction, and behavior to their origin, evolution, and relationship with other living beings. Study large clusters such as species, populations, and ecosystems, but also small units such as cells and genetics. This is why it has a wide variety of specialties.


Study the human body in its healthy functioning as well as in pathological situations (diseases). In other words, it studies its interaction with microorganisms and other substances that can benefit or harm it. It is a science that is directly associated with its technical application, that is, promoting human health.

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